A slight digression from the world of fractals and generative art: This post is about drawing high-quality graphs of high-frequency functions.

Yesterday, I needed to draw a few graphs of some simple functions. I started out by using Iñigo Quilez’s nice little GraphToy, but my functions could not be expressed in a single line. So I decided to implement a graph plotter example in Fragmentarium instead.

Plotting a graph using a GLSL shader is not an obvious task – you have to frame the problem in a way, such that each pixel can be processed individually. This is in contrast to the standard way of drawing graphs – where you choose a uniform set of values for the x-axis, and draw the lines connecting the points in the (x,f(x)) set.

So how do you do it for each pixel individually?

The first thing to realize is, that it is easy to determine whether a pixel is above or below the graph – this can be done by checking whether y<f(x) or y>f(x). The tricky part is, that we only want to draw the *boundary* – the curve that separates the regions above and below the graph.

So how do we determine the boundary? After having tried a few different approaches, I came up with the following simple edge detection procedure: for each pixel, choose a number of samples, in a region around the pixel center. Then count how many samples are above, and how many samples are below the curve.

If all samples are above, or all samples are below, the pixel is not on the boundary. However, if there are samples both above and below, the boundary must be passing through the pixel.

The whole idea can be expressed in a few lines of code:

for (float i = 0.0; i < samples; i++) { for (float j = 0.0;j < samples; j++) { float f = function(pos.x+ i*step.x)-(pos.y+ j*step.y); count += (f>0.) ? 1 : -1; } } // base color on abs(count)/(samples*samples)

It should be noted, that the sampling can be improved by adding a small amount of jittering (random offsets) to the positions – this reduces the aliasing at the cost of adding a small amount of noise.

## Highfrequency functions and aliasing

So why it this better than the common ‘connecting line’ approach?

Because this approach deals with the high-frequency information much better.

Consider the function f(x)=sin(x*x*x)*sin(x).

Here is a plot from GraphToy:

Notice how the graph near the red arrows seem to be slowly varying. This is not the true behavior of function, but an artifact of the way we sample our function. Our limited resolution cannot capture the high frequency components, which results in aliasing.

Whenever you do anything media-related on a computer, you will at some point run into problems with aliasing: whether you are doing sound synthesis, image manipulation, 3D rendering or even drawing a straight line.

However, using the pixel shader approach, aliasing is much easier to avoid. Here is a Fragmentarium plot of the same function:

Even though it may seem backwards to evaluate the function for all pixels on the screen, it makes it possible to tame the aliasing, and even on a modest GPU, the procedure is fast enough for realtime interactions.

The example is included in GitHub under Examples/2D Systems/GraphPlotter.frag.